Coriander is native to South-Eastern Europe and grown extensively all over the Europe, Middle East, China, India, and Turkey. It is recognized as cilantro in the west. The seeds measure about 4-6 mm in diameter with a central hollow cavity containing two vertical vittae containing some important essential oils. Coriander seeds can be ready for harvest when the plant turns brown and its leaves begin to dry and fall. Immature seeds are light green and taste bitter.
Coriander seeds possess many plant-derived chemical compounds that are known to have anti-oxidant, disease preventing, and health promoting properties. The characteristic aromatic flavor of coriander seeds comes from their essential volatile oils and fatty acids. Its active compounds are responsible for digestive, carminative, and anti-flatulent properties. As in other spices, coriander is also rich in dietary fiber. 100 g seeds provide 41.9 g of fiber. Much of this fiber is metabolically inert insoluble fiber, which helps increase bulk of the food by absorbing water throughout the digestive system, easing constipation.